How To Solve ReferenceError window is not defined in JavaScript

Dec 13, 2021


Welcome to Genevish Graphics, your ultimate resource for all things Arts & Entertainment - Visual Arts and Design. In this comprehensive guide, we will help you understand and troubleshoot the common JavaScript error of "ReferenceError: window is not defined". This error typically occurs when using browser-specific JavaScript code in a non-browser environment. Let's dive deep into the solutions and tips to resolve this issue!

Understanding the ReferenceError

Before we delve into solving the "ReferenceError: window is not defined" error, let's gain a better understanding of what this error actually means. In JavaScript, a ReferenceError occurs when you try to access a variable or object that is not declared or defined in the current scope. The specific error message "window is not defined" usually suggests that you are trying to access the global window object in a non-browser environment, where it is not available by default.

Possible Causes

There are several potential causes for encountering the "ReferenceError: window is not defined" error. Below, we list some common scenarios that can lead to this error:

  1. Executing JavaScript code outside of a web browser
  2. Using browser-specific APIs or objects in a non-browser environment
  3. Improper module bundling or execution order
  4. Missing or incorrect dependencies

Methods to Solve ReferenceError window is not defined

1. Detect the Environment

The first step in resolving the "ReferenceError: window is not defined" error is to detect the environment in which the JavaScript code is running. Is it running within a browser or a non-browser environment? Once you determine the environment, you can apply the appropriate solution for the specific case.

2. Check for Browser-Specific Code

If you are running code that includes browser-specific APIs or objects, such as the window object, in a non-browser environment, you need to modify your code accordingly. Consider using conditionals or feature detection to ensure that the code is only executed in a browser environment. Alternatively, you can use specialized libraries or frameworks that handle environment-specific code more gracefully.

3. Review Module Bundling and Execution Order

In scenarios where you use JavaScript modules and bundlers, such as Webpack or Rollup, incorrect bundling or execution order can cause the "ReferenceError: window is not defined" error. Ensure that the dependent modules and scripts are loaded in the correct order and properly bundled to avoid any dependency-related issues.

4. Update and Verify Dependencies

Outdated or incorrect dependencies can also contribute to the "ReferenceError: window is not defined" error. Make sure you have the latest versions of all relevant dependencies by updating them through package managers like npm or yarn. Additionally, verify that the dependencies are compatible with your environment to ensure smooth execution of your JavaScript code.


Congratulations! You have successfully learned how to solve the "ReferenceError: window is not defined" error in JavaScript. By understanding the causes and following the provided solutions, you can effectively troubleshoot this common issue. Remember to always consider the environment, review your code for browser-specific references, and ensure proper module bundling and dependencies. Genevish Graphics hopes you found this guide helpful in resolving the ReferenceError and optimizing your JavaScript code.

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At Genevish Graphics, we are passionate about providing top-notch resources to help you excel in the world of Arts & Entertainment - Visual Arts and Design. Feel free to explore our website for more in-depth tutorials, articles, and inspiration.

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